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Interception Resistance

Overview FSO communications have built-in interception resistance due to the way information is sent. Consider first how a radio-frequency signal is…

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Airbus

Overview Airbus is a multinational European aerospace corporation founded in 1970 and headquartered in France. The company is the primary airline…

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Advanced Research in Telecommunication Systems (ARTES)

Overview The European Space Agency’s Advanced Research in Telecommunication Systems (ESA’s ARTES) is a program focused on developing products and services…

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5D Ultrafast Imaging

Overview Ultrafast multidimensional optical imaging has important applications in the detection of the rapidly occurring phenomena found in biology, chemistry, and…

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Coherent Orthogonal Optical Frequency Division Multiplexing (CO-OFDM)

Overview Coherent Orthogonal Optical Frequency Division Multiplexing (CO-OFDM) is a type of WDM technology that uses the mathematical principle of orthogonality to send…

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Geostationary Orbit (GEO)

Overview Geostationary orbit, also known as geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is the region of space surrounding earth above 35,786 km. Satellites…

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Global Positioning System (GPS)

Overview The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a MEO satellite constellation approximately 20,000 km above the surface of the Earth. The US government originally developed GPS…

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BlackJack LEO Constellation

Overview Blackjack is a DARPA program that will replace the old National Security Space (NSS) satellite infrastructure in GEO with a mesh grid…

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Adaptive Optics

Overview Adaptive optics (AO) are optical devices or technologies used to correct wavefront distortions on a fast timescale (100 – 1kHz).…

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What Are Physical Limitations of FSO?

Obstructions Flying birds, trees, and tall buildings can temporarily block a single beam when it appears in line of sight (LOS)…

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