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Global Positioning System (GPS)

Overview The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a MEO satellite constellation approximately 20,000 km above the surface of the Earth. The US government originally developed GPS…

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BlackJack LEO Constellation

Overview Blackjack is a DARPA program that will replace the old National Security Space (NSS) satellite infrastructure in GEO with a mesh grid…

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Adaptive Optics

Overview Adaptive optics (AO) are optical devices or technologies used to correct wavefront distortions on a fast timescale (100 – 1kHz).…

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What Are Physical Limitations of FSO?

Obstructions Flying birds, trees, and tall buildings can temporarily block a single beam when it appears in line of sight (LOS)…

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Bit-Error Rate (BER)

Overview The bit-error rate (BER) is the number of countable bit errors encountered in a data stream over a certain period…

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Lack of Side Lobes

Overview Side lobes are additional local maxima patterns found in antenna sources which are separate from the main maxima or signal.…

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Goddard Space Flight Center

Overview NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the oldest and largest space research center in the United States. GSFC builds…

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Australian Optical Ground Station Network (AOGSN)

Overview On Sept. 11 2021, the University of Western Australia finished installing the first space laser optical ground station in the…

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Speed of Data Transmission

Overview Free Space Optics provides speeds comparable to those of optical fiber connections with the flexibility and practicality of being part…

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Site Diversity

Overview Site diversity is a technique used to improve the reliability of satellite communications systems that have been limited by atmospheric…

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